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Amyloidosis: Cause, symptoms, diagnosis & more…

In 2018, Musharraf was diagnosed with a significant health issue in the United Arab Emirates.

Amyloidosis: Cause, symptoms, diagnosis & more…
Pervez Musharraf, former president of Pakistan
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CHENNAI: Pervez Musharraf, former president of Pakistan, clarified on Friday that he has been hospitalised for the past three weeks owing to a complication of his illness (Amyloidosis). His relatives noted in the message that he was in a difficult stage where recuperation is difficult and his organs are malfunctioning. In a statement posted on Musharraf's official Twitter account, his family stated that he has Amyloidosis and asked for ease in his daily life. In 2018, Musharraf was diagnosed with a significant health issue in the United Arab Emirates.

What is Amyloidosis?

Amyloidosis is an illness in which an abnormal protein called amyloid builds up in the tissues and organs of the body. When this happens, it has an effect on their shape and functions. Amyloidosis is a serious medical condition that can result in organ failure and death.

Amyloidosis can arise as a sequel disorder to another illness or as a main illness. It can be caused by a gene mutation, but most of the time, the cause of amyloidosis is unclear.

The cause:

Amyloid deposits can be formed by a variety of proteins, but only a few of them are harmful to one's health. The type of amyloidosis is determined by the type of protein and the area where it collects. Deposits can appear all over the body or in a single location.

Types of Amyloidosis

AL amyloidosis: AL amyloidosis is a kind of amyloidosis that affects the muscles. This is the most common kind of primary amyloidosis. The protein that causes Alzheimer's disease is known as "amyloid light chains," or AL. It happens when your bone marrow develops abnormal antibodies that can't be broken down. Multiple myeloma is a type of blood cancer that has been linked to it. It's possible that your kidneys, heart, liver, intestines, and nerves are all damaged.

AA amyloidosis: Secondary amyloidosis is a condition induced by another chronic infectious or inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis. It mostly affects your kidneys, but it can also cause problems with your digestive system, liver, and heart. The amyloid type A protein, abbreviated as AA, is responsible for this kind.

Amyloidosis caused by dialysis (DRA): This is especially common in seniors and dialysis patients who have been on the treatment for more than 5 years. This kind of amyloidosis is caused by a buildup of beta-2 microglobulin in the blood. Deposits can occur in a variety of tissues, but bones, joints, and tendons are the most prevalent.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Swelling of your ankles and legs

  • Severe fatigue and weakness

  • Shortness of breath with minimal exertion

  • Difficulty in lying flat on bed due to shortness of breath

  • Numbness, tingling or pain in your hands or feet, especially pain in your wrist (carpal tunnel syndrome)

  • An irregular heartbeat

  • Skin changes, such as thickening or easy bruising, and purplish patches around the eyes

  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Unintentional weight loss of more than 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms)

  • Diarrhea, possibly with blood, or constipation

  • An enlarged tongue, which sometimes looks rippled around its edge

Risk factors

Age: The majority of patients diagnosed with amyloidosis are between the ages of 60 and 70, though it can strike at any age.

Sex: Men are more likely to develop amyloidosis.

History of family: Some forms of amyloidosis are passed down from generation to generation.

Other illnesses: AA amyloidosis is more likely if you have a persistent viral or inflammatory condition.

Diagnosis and treatment:

Amyloidosis is difficult to diagnose due to its nonspecific symptoms. To figure out whether type of Amyloidosis is present, doctors extract a small sample of tissue (biopsy) from the affected area. The treatment depends based on this.

Amyloidosis has no known cure and it is impossible to eliminate the amyloid deposits immediately.

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