The 18-year-old then dropped to a crawling pace before pulling across the gravel and parking up but marshals were unable to move the Red Bull to safety without the use of a crane, leading to a virtual safety car.
That allowed the Mercedes drivers to pit and gain time on Ricciardo, who had already done so. "They basically got a free pit stop," said the exasperated Australian over the radio.
Verstappen said the team had told him to keep going initially.
Ferrari's Sebastian Vettel finished fourth but a bungled stop put paid to team mate Kimi Raikkonen's race with the Finn leaving before the wheel had been fully detached.
"I saw some sparks coming out. At the end of the pitlane the team told me to stop ... the rear wheel nut had not fitted properly," said Raikkonen, who let the Ferrari roll back before parking up.
Ferrari were fined 5,000 euros ($5,439.00) for the unsafe release.
Fernando Alonso was fifth for McLaren with fellow-Spaniard Carlos Sainz sixth for Toro Rosso and Brazilian Felipe Massa seventh for Williams.
Mexican Sergio Perez finished eighth for Force India, after fighting back from the rear following a first lap tangle with Toro Rosso's Daniil Kvyat, and McLaren's Jenson Button was ninth.
Kvyat collected a 10 second time penalty for causing the collision.
Frenchman Romain Grosjean collected a point for Haas, the first U.S.-owned team in 30 years who were making their home debut, but Mexican team mate Esteban Gutierrez failed to finish.