The researchers identified fast-food restaurants on the route between children's houses and their schools. Fast food restaurants included the major hamburger chains and drive-in restaurants (e.g. McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's), dairy stores with large fast-food menus (e.g., Dairy Queen), take-out pizza establishments, quick-service taco places (e.g., Taco Bell). Sandwich delicatessens (e.g., Subway, Quiznos), and fried chicken restaurants (e.g., KFC, Chick-Fil-A). The researchers excluded speciality stores such as ice-cream parlours not selling other fast foods (e.g., Baskin-Robbins), coffee shops (e.g. Starbucks), and doughnut shops (e.g. Krispy Kream).