The accident took place near a temple in Kingaon village around 1 am when the papaya-laden truck was on its way to Yawal tehsil in Jalgaon from Dhule, an official from Yawal police station said.
The deceased included two children, aged 3 and 5years, and a 15-year-old girl.
The labourers belonged to Abhoda, Vivra, Kerhala villages and Raver tehsil in the district, the official said.
After the accident, police and some locals rushed to the spot and the truck was brought out of the pit with the help of a JCB machine, he said.
Fifteen people were killed and five others, including the truck driver, received injuries, the official said.
The injured people have been admitted to Jalgaon Civil Hospital where two of them are reported to be in a serious condition, he said.
Jalgaon's Additional Superintendent of Police Chandrakant Gavli told PTI that the accident may have taken place due to a technical fault in the vehicle.
''But, we have asked the regional transport office(RTO) to submit a report. A case has been registered against the truck driver under Indian Penal Code Section 304-II(culpable homicide not amounting to murder),'' he said.
The deceased have been identified as Hussain Muslim Maniyar (30), Sarfaraz Tadvi (32), Digambar Sapkale (55),Narendra Wagh (25), Dildar Tadvi (20), Ashok Wagh (40), Durgabai Adakmol (20), Ganesh More (5), Sagar Wagh (3), Sharda Ramesh More (15), Sangeeta Ashok Wagh (35), Yamunabai Ingle(45), Kamlabai More (45), Sabnoor Tadvi (53) and Sandip Bhalerao (25), another official said.