At tea, Alastair Cook was batting on 13 not out, while Keaton Jennings was unbeaten on 7 runs, as England reached 20 without loss in their second innings.
This was after Jadeja scored 86 not out as India finished their first innings at 292, conceding a 40-run lead. The left-hander faced 156 balls and hit 11 fours as well as a six.
Post lunch, India tried to extend their innings as long as possible. Ishant Sharma (4) though fell in the fourth over after the break, caught behind off Moeen Ali (2-50).
At the other end, Adil Rashid (1-19) dismissed Mohammed Shami (1) who again tried to hit out instead of putting a price on his wicket.
Jasprit Bumrah (0) did just that, and batted out 14 deliveries, which allowed Jadeja to smash the ball around. In doing so, he put on 32 runs for the tenth and final wicket.
Jadeja reached his ninth Test half-century off 113 balls, after India had crossed 250 in the 84th over. England were so flustered that they took the new ball in hope of dismissing the last wicket quickly.
The partnership, and India's innings ended through a run-out in the 95th over as Jadeja finished unbeaten.
Earlier, Hanuma Vihari scored a half-century on debut as India reached 240 for seven at lunch.
Starting from overnight 174 for six, Vihari and Jadeja looked to bat for time and dig India out of the precarious position they found themselves in.
James Anderson (2-54) and Stuart Broad (1-50) bowled a threatening first spell, but both batsmen played watchfully and with patience. There were a couple edges, though they didn't go to hand or fell short.
Runs started trickling in as India scored 33 runs in the first hour of play. 200 came up in the 63rd over, with the duo adding 50 runs for their seventh-wicket partnership off 117 balls.
Jadeja started taking a few more liberties with his stroke making, while Vihari stayed calm and looked to score when the opportunity presented itself. In the 71st over, England reviewed a caught behind decision against Jadeja, but there was no edge.
Vihari (56) then reached his maiden Test half-century off 104 balls, justifying the decision to include him ahead of Karun Nair.
Just when it appeared that he would take India to lunch without any loss, Ali struck against the run of play and dismissed Vihari. The batsman reviewed, but DRS didn't prove conclusively if he did not edge behind, as the bat seemed to hit pad the same time as the ball.
Vihari and Jadeja added 77 runs in all, as India scored 66 runs in the first session of play.