The snub from head coach Janne Andersson means Ibrahimovic's international career is over and he may regret deciding to quit following the disappointment at Euro 2016.
Since Sweden qualified for the World Cup with a play-off win against Italy last November, the LA Galaxy striker has teased fans about whether he would be involved in Russia.
Ibrahimovic has spoken out about a potential return to the international scene on several occasions since Sweden qualified, despite not being involved for any of the qualification process.
During a press conference with LA Galaxy in March, he responded to questions about Sweden and the World Cup by saying: 'They're calling me every day, asking how do you feel, what do you want, what are you thinking, how's the situation?
'It has nothing to do with the other (Sweden) side, it's about this side, about me. If I want, I'm there. If I don't want, I'm not.'
The former Manchester United striker also appeared on Jimmy Kimmell's live TV show and said: 'A World Cup without me wouldn't be a World Cup.
'I am going to the World Cup, yes. I just said I am going to the World Cup. If I just say more, people will hang me. So, I have to be careful what I say now.'
The news he will not be involved in one final major tournament will be a huge blow for the 36-year-old, whose international career is certainly finished.
Another player that will not be part of Sweden's 23-man squad heading to Russia is its goal-scoring hero from its play-off win over Italy.
Jakob Johansson had to be left out of the final squad announced on Tuesday by Andersson after not recovering from a serious knee injury in time.
Johansson scored the only goal in Sweden's 1-0 aggregate win against Italy in the play-offs last November.
It came in the first leg in Stockholm, but he then suffered the serious injury during the return fixture in Italy and has been out since.
Goalkeepers: Karl-Johan Johnsson (Guingamp), Kristoffer Nordfeldt (Swansea), Robin Olsen (FC Copenhagen)
Defenders: Ludwig Augustinsson (Werder Bremen), Andreas Granqvist (Krasnodar), Filip Helander (Bologna), Pontus Jansson (Leeds), Emil Krafth (Bologna), Mikael Lustig (Celtic), Victor Lindelof (Manchester United), Martin Olsson (Swansea)
Midfielders: Viktor Claesson (Krasnodar), Jimmy Durmaz (Toulouse), Albin Ekdal (Hamburg), Emil Forsberg (Leipzig), Oscar Hiljemark (Genoa), Sebastian Larsson (Hull), Marcus Rohden (Crotone), Gustav Svensson (Seattle Sounders)
Forwards: Marcus Berg (Al Ain), John Guidetti (Alaves), Isaac Kiese Thelin (Waasland-Beveren), Ola Toivonen (Toulouse)