Boseman, who died in August at the age of 43 following a four year-long private battle with colon cancer, won the award in the best performance by an actor in a motion picture category.
Boseman's wife, Simone Ledward, accepted the award on his behalf in a Zoom call.
''He would thank God. He would thank his parents. He would thank his ancestors for their guidance and their sacrifices,'' an emotional Ledward said.
It's the first Golden Globe win for Boseman, who achieved global stardom as King T'Challa of fictitious African country Wakanda aka superhero Black Panther in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Much before 2018's ''Black Panther'', the actor had made a name for himself by playing iconic black historical figures like baseball star Jackie Robinson in ''42'', singer-songwriter James Brown in ''Get on Up'' and the first African-American Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall in ''Marshall''.
Gary Oldman for ''Mank'', Riz Ahmed for ''The Sound of Metal'', Anthony Hopkins for ''The Father'', and Tahar Rahim for ''The Mauritanian'' were the other nominees in the category.