TikTok CEO Kevin Mayer quit the company in August last year amid the dispute with the then Donald Trump administration and the India ban.
Vanessa Pappas, who was serving as interim CEO, will take the role of COO, the company said in a statement on Friday.
"The leadership team of Shou and Vanessa sets the stage for sustained growth," said ByteDance CEO Yiming Zhang.
"Shou brings deep knowledge of the company and industry, having led a team that was among our earliest investors, and having worked in the technology sector for a decade. He will add depth to the team, focusing on areas including corporate governance and long-term business initiatives," he added.
With more than 58 million installs in March, TikTok became the most downloaded non-gaming app worldwide.
TikTok was followed by Facebook which became the second most installed non-gaming app worldwide for March with more than 56 million installs, showed the data from app analytics firm Sensor Tower.
The countries with the largest number of TikTok installs were from Douyin in China at 11 per cent, followed by the US at 10 per cent.