Technological developments in recent decades have increased young people's engagement with screen-based technologies (screen time), and a reduction in young people's contact with nature (green time) has been observed concurrently.
In general, high levels of screen time appeared to be associated with unfavourable psychological outcomes, while green time appeared to be associated with favourable psychological outcomes, according to Tassia Oswald from the University of Adelaide.
According to the authors, preliminary evidence suggests that green time could potentially buffer the consequences of high screen time, meaning nature may be an under-utilised public health resource to promote youth psychological well-being in a high-tech era.
"Investment in more rigorous research is needed to explore this," they wrote in a paper published September in the open-access journal PLOS ONE.
The combination of high screen time and low green time may affect mental health and well-being.
But research investigating the psychological impacts of screen time or green time typically considers each factor in isolation and fails to delineate the reciprocal effects of high technology use and low contact with nature on mental health and cognitive outcomes.
To address this question, Oswald and colleagues analysed the findings of 186 studies to collate evidence assessing associations between screen time, green time, and psychological outcomes (including mental health, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement) for children and adolescents.
"This systematic review highlights that nature may currently be an under-utilised public health resource, which could potentially function as an upstream preventative and psychological well-being promotion intervention for children and adolescents in a high-tech era," Oswald said.
"However, robust evidence is needed to guide policies and recommendations around appropriate screen time and green time at critical life stages, to ultimately ensure optimal psychological well-being for young people".